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This period saw the Democratic-Republican Party split into two different Parties, the Democrats and the National Republicans. The Congressional Caucuses had become dormant, and now State Legislatures nominated presidential candidates. In 1832,  Nominating Conventions were finally adopted, and have remained until the present day.

John Quincy Adams

6th President 1825-1829

Title: [John Quincy Adams, half-length portrait]   Related Names:     Detroit Publishing Co. , copyright claimant      Detroit Publishing Co. , publisher   Date Created/Published: c[between 1900 and 1912]

Title: [John Quincy Adams, half-length portrait]
Related Names:
Detroit Publishing Co. , copyright claimant
Detroit Publishing Co. , publisher
Date Created/Published: c[between 1900 and 1912]

Fast Facts:

  • Born: July 11, 1767 in Braintree (Now Quincy), Massachusetts
  • Died: February 23, 1848 in Washington, D.C.
  • Home: Peacefield, Quincy, Massachusetts
  • Parents: John (1835-1826) and Abigail (1744-1818) Adams
  • Wife: Louisa Catherine Johnson (1775-1852)
  • Children: George Washington (1801-1829), John II (1803-1834), and Charles Francis (1807-1886) Adams
  • Occupations: Lawyer and Professor
  • Religion: Unitarian Branch of Congregationalism
  • Political Party: Federalist (Until 1808), Democratic-Republican (1808-1825), National Republican (Whig, from 1825)
  • Political Offices Before Presidency: Minister to the Netherlands and Prussia, Massachusetts Sate Senator, U.S Senator, Minister to Russia and Great Britain, Secretary of State
  • Military Service: None
  • Election Results: 1824: 84 electoral votes to 99 for Andrew Jackson of Tennessee, 41 for William Crawford of Georgia, and 37 for Henry Clay of Kentucky
  • Vice President: John C. Calhoun of South Carolina 1825-1829
  • States Admitted to the Union: None
  • Amendments to the Constitution: None

More Facts:

  • John Quincy Adams was the son of previous president John Adams, making him one of only two presidents who was both president and the son of a president
  • Adams was the only president elected with less electoral votes than his opponents
  • Adam’s father was the first father of a president to live into his son’s term
  • Adams was the second president defeated for Re-election
  • Adams was the only former president to enter the U.S House of Representatives, serving from 1830 to his death.
  • Adams was also the first (former) president to have his photo taken, in 1843, although the one I placed here is a portrait, not a photo

 

Grading: F

Adams is considered as having accomplished the least of any full-term President in U.S history

  • Adams was the first president to actively support internal improvements and created the Cumberland Road
  • Adams tried to send delegates to the Panama Congress, but neither arrived on time
  • Adams signed the Tariff of Abominations, forcing prices up and creating a financial panic. The bill was drawn up by Adam’s rival, Andrew Jackson, in order to deny Adams Re-election.

Adams probably would have done much more than just this, but he allowed his enemies to fill up Congress and cabinet positions, which in turn hampered his proposals.

Adams was succeeded by his old enemy and greatest rival.

Title: Andrew Jackson / painted by D.M. Carter ; engraved by A.H. Ritchie.   Creator(s): Ritchie, Alexander Hay, 1822-1895, engraver   Related Names:     Carter, Dennis Malone, 1827-1881 , artist   Date Created/Published: New York : Ritchie & Co., c1860.

Title: Andrew Jackson / painted by D.M. Carter ; engraved by A.H. Ritchie.
Creator(s): Ritchie, Alexander Hay, 1822-1895, engraver
Related Names:
Carter, Dennis Malone, 1827-1881 , artist
Date Created/Published: New York : Ritchie & Co., c1860.

Andrew Jackson

7th president 1829-1837

Fast Facts:

  • Born: March 15, 1767 in the Waxhaws on the border between North and South Carolina
  • Died: June 8, 1845 in Nashville, Tennessee
  • Home: The Hermitage, Nashville, Tennessee
  • Parents: Andrew (?-1767) and Elizabeth Hutchinson (?-1781) Jackson
  • Wife: Rachel Donelson Roberts (1767-1828)
  • Marriage: August 1, 1791 in Natchez, Mississippi
  • Re-Marriage: January 17, 1794 in Nashville, Tennessee
  • Children: None, one adopted
  • Occupations: Lawyer, Soldier, and Politician
  • Religion: Presbyterian
  • Political Party: Democratic
  • Political Offices Before Presidency: U.S. Representative, U.S Senate, Governor of Florida Territory
  •  Military Service: Major General of Tennessee Militia, Major General of U.S Army
  • Election Results: 1828: 178 Electoral Votes to 83 for John Quincy Adams of Massachusetts
  • Election Results: 1832: 219 Electoral Votes to 49 for Henry Clay of Kentucky, 11 for John Floyd of South Carolina, and 7 for William Wirt of Maryland
  • Vice President: John C. Calhoun  of South Carolina 1829-1832 (Resigned) and Martin Van Buren of New York 1833-1837
  • States Admitted to the Union: Arkansas and Michigan
  • Amendments to the Constitution: None
  • More Facts:
  • Jackson’s birthplace is disputed between North and South Carolina. However, Jackson himself believed that he was born in South Carolina
  • Jackson had lost his entire family by 1781
  • Jackson Is the only president to have been a Prisoner of War
  • Jackson married Rachel Donelson illegally in 1791, before her divorce to her husband was final, so they Re-married in 1794. The charge of adultery was brought up many times and it contributed to Rachel’s death in 1828. Jackson had fought many duels to defend her honor
  • Jackson didn’t get along with his Vice President, Calhoun, who is one of only two Vice Presidents to resign
  • Jackson also was the first president to survive an assassination attempt, but at the time was a candidate for being the first president to die in office due to his poor health.

Grading: B

Jackson was the most active president up to that time, but made controversial decisions that led to him being censured and being dubbed as “King Andrew”

  • Jackson’s cabinet resigned as a result of the Eaton Affair
  • Jackson coined the term “Spoils System”, in which he replaced enemies in the government with his supporters
  • Jackson believed in government over State’s Rights, and founded the Democratic Party
  • Jackson threatened to use force when South Carolina tried to secede from the Union, stating that “The Union Must Be Preserved!”
  • Jackson also vetoed the Bank of the United State’s Charter and withdrew funds. This was controversial, as it hurt America’s economy and led to the Panic of 1837
  • Jackson used force against Indians, forcing them further West and leading up to the “Trail of Tears”
  • Jackson survived an assassination attempt in 1835. His methods were controversial:  he did more than any president before him and was the closer to becoming a king than any other American president.

Jackson was then succeeded by his Vice-President and supporter.

Title: [Former President Martin Van Buren, half-length portrait, facing right]   Date Created/Published: [photographed between 1840 and 1862, printed later]

Title: [Former President Martin Van Buren, half-length portrait, facing right]
Date Created/Published: [photographed between 1840 and 1862, printed later]

Martin Van Buren

8th President 1837-1841

Fast Facts:

  •  Born: December 5, 1782 in Kinderhook, New York
  • Died: July 24, 1862 in Kinderhook, New York
  • Home: Lindenwald, Kinderhook, New York
  • Parents: Abraham (1737-1817) and Maria Hoes (1747-1817) Van Buren
  • Wife: Hannah Hoes (1783-1819)
  • Marriage: February 21, 1807
  • Children: Abraham (1807-1873), John (1810-1866), Martin (1812-1855), and Smith Thomson (1817-1876)
  • Occupations: Lawyer and Politician
  • Religion: Dutch Reformed
  • Political Party: Democratic (Until 1848 and after 1855), Free Soil (1848-1855)
  • Political Offices before Presidency: New York State Senator, Attorney General of New York, U.S. Senator, Governor of New York, Secretary of State, and Vice President
  • Military Service: None
  • Election Results: 1836: 170 Electoral Votes to 73 for William Henry Harrison of Ohio, 26 for Hugh Lawson White of Tennessee, and 14 for Daniel Webster of Massachusetts
  • Vice President: Richard Mentor Johnson of Kentucky 1837-1841
  • States Admitted to Union: None
  • Amendments to Constitution: None

More Facts:

  • Van Buren is the only president who used English as a second language; He mainly spoke Dutch
  • Van Buren was the first president born an American Citizen
  • Van Buren was the second widower to become president
  • Van Buren was the last sitting Vice President to be elected President until 1988
  • Van Buren tried to become president again in 1844 and 1848, but he failed
  • Van Buren was Andrew Jackson’s closest friend
  • Van Buren was defeated for Re-election in 1840

Grading: C

  • Van Buren was blamed for the Panic of 1837, but it was actually Jackson’s fault, the result of the collapse of the Bank of the United States
  • Van Buren proclaimed Neutrality during the Caroline Affair, pledging peace with Britain during the Aroostook War
  • Van Buren opposed the Annexation of Texas, fearing a loss of balance between the Slave and Free states. This cost him Re-election

Van Buren was succeeded by a military hero and his chief rival during the 1836 campaign.

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