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Title: Grover Cleveland   Date Created/Published: c1884.  P19803 U.S. Copyright Office. Title from item. Copyright 1884.

Title: Grover Cleveland
Date Created/Published: c1884.
P19803 U.S. Copyright Office.
Title from item.
Copyright 1884.

This period in American History focused on American expansion, the tariff, and the currency issue, with Democrats and Republicans divided over which to support. McKinley finally made the choice to put the U.S. on the Gold Standard and a high tariff, and to acquire new territory.

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th President 1885-1889 and 1893-1897

Fast Facts:

  • Born: March 18, 1837 in Caldwell, New Jersey
  • Died: June 24, 1908 in Princeton, New Jersey
  • Home: Princeton, New Jersey
  • Parents: Richard Falley (1804-1853) and Ann Neal (1806-1882)
  • Wife: Frances Folsom (1864-1947)
  • Marriage: June 2, 1886
  • Children: Ruth (1891-1904), Esther (1893-1980), Marion (1895-1977), Richard Folsom (1897-1974), and Francis Grover (1903-1995)
  • Occupations: Clerk, Teacher, and Lawyer
  • Religion: Presbyterian
  • Political Party: Democratic
  • Political Offices Before Presidency: Sheriff of Erie County, New York, Mayor of Buffalo, New York, Governor of New York
  • Military Service: None
  • Election Results: 1884: 219 Electoral Votes to 182 for James G. Blaine of Maine
  • Election Results: 1892: 277 Electoral Votes to 145 for Benjamin Harrison of Indiana and 22 for James B. Weaver of Iowa
  • Vice Presidents: Thomas A. Hendricks of Indiana 1885 (Died in Office) and Adlai E. Stevenson of Illinois 1893-1897
  • States Admitted to the Union: Utah

More Facts:

  • Cleveland was drafted in the Civil War, but paid for a substitute
  • Cleveland was the first Democrat elected President since James Buchanan
  • Cleveland was the only President married in the White House
  • Cleveland was the only President who served two non-consecutive terms and the first since Grant to serve two terms
  • Cleveland was crushed by the death of his daughter Ruth in 1904

Grading: C

During his First term, Cleveland:

  • Signed the Presidential Succession Act, allowing the cabinet to take over as President should both the President and the Vice President be unable to do their duties
  • Vetoed hundreds of pension and private relief bills, calling them a drain of the treasury. He was harshly criticized for this
  • Called for but never enacted a low tariff

After his First Term, Cleveland was succeeded by Harrison, a U.S. Senator.

During his Second Term, Cleveland:

  • Condemned the overthrow of the Hawaiian Monarchy and withdrew the annexation treaty
  • Blamed the panic of 1893 on the Sherman Silver Purchase Act, which he later repealed
  • Signed the Wilson-Gorman Act of 1894, lowering tariffs
  • Dispatched federal troops to Illinois in response to the Pullman Strike

After his Second Term, Cleveland was succeeded by a U.S. Representative and the Governor of Ohio, William McKinley.

Benjamin Harrison

23rd President 1889-1893

Title: President Benjamin Harrison   Date Created/Published: [between 1870 and 1880]

Title: President Benjamin Harrison
Date Created/Published: [between 1870 and 1880]

Fast Facts:

  • Born: August 20, 1833 in North Bend, Ohio
  • Died: March 13, 1901 in Indianapolis, Indiana
  • Home: Indianapolis, Indiana
  • Parents: John Scott (1804-1878) and Elizabeth Irwin (1810-1850) Harrison
  • First Wife: Caroline (Carrie) Scott (1832-1892)
  • First Marriage: October 20, 1853
  • Children by First Wife: Russell Benjamin (1854-1936) and Mary Scott (1858-1930)
  • Second wife: Mary Scott Lord Dimmick (1858-1948)
  • Second Marriage: April 16, 1896
  • Children by Second Wife: Elizabeth (1898-1955)
  • Occupations: Lawyer and Soldier
  • Religion: Presbyterian
  • Political Party: Republican
  • Political Offices Before Presidency: U.S. Senator
  • Military Service: Brevet Brigadier General in Union Army
  • Election Results: 1888: 233 Electoral Votes to 168 for Grover Cleveland of New York
  • Vice President: Livi P. Morton of New York 1889-1893
  • States Admitted to the Union: North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, Washington, Idaho, and Wyoming

More Facts:

  • Benjamin Harrison was the Grandson of William Henry Harrison, the 9th President
  • Harrison’s father, John Scott was a U.S. Representative
  • Harrison’s wife, Caroline died while he was President, and he remarried in 1896 (His second wife outlived him by half a century)
  • Harrison was defeated for Re-election by the President he succeeded, Grover Cleveland

Grading: C

  • Harrison, unlike Cleveland, supported Veteran’s pensions while in office
  • Harrison signed the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, allowing him to break down major companies. This act was used exclusively in the Roosevelt-Taft administrations
  • Harrison signed the Sherman Silver Purchase Act
  • Harrison also signed the McKinley Tariff Act, greatly increasing Tariffs and later causing a panic
  • Harrison signed the Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, later revoked by Cleveland

Harrison was succeeded by Grover Cleveland, whom he had succeeded.

William McKinley

25th President 1897-1901

Title: [William McKinley, half-length portrait, facing slightly right] / Parker, Washington, D.C.   Creator(s): Parker, Charles, photographer  D10425 U.S. Copyright Office. No. 2.

Title: [William McKinley, half-length portrait, facing slightly right] / Parker, Washington, D.C.
Creator(s): Parker, Charles, photographer
D10425 U.S. Copyright Office.
No. 2.

Fast Facts:

  • Born: January 29, 1843 in Niles, Ohio
  • Died: September 14, 1901 in Buffalo, New York
  • Home: Market Avenue, Canton, Ohio
  • Parents: William (1807-1892) and Nancy Allison (1809-1897)
  • Wife: Ida Saxton (1847-1907)
  • Marriage: January 25, 1871
  • Children: Two, Katherine and Ida; neither survived Childhood
  • Occupations: Teacher, Soldier, and Lawyer
  • Religion: Methodist
  • Political Party: Republican
  • Political Offices Before Presidency: U.S. Representative, Governor of Ohio
  • Military Service: Major in Union Army
  • Election Results: 1896: 271 Electoral Votes to 176 for William J. Brian of Nebraska
  • Election Results: 1900: 292 Electoral Votes to 155 for William J. Brian of Nebraska
  • Vice Presidents: Garret A. Hobart of New Jersey 1897-1899 (Died in Office) and Theodore Roosevelt of New York 1901

More Facts:

  • McKinley sponsored the McKinley Tariff, and was blamed for the panic of 1893
  • McKinley was also the last future President to serve in the Civil War
  • McKinley’s wife was an invalid and had constant seizures, but McKinley was always seated next to her, ready to put a handkerchief over her face to hide her contorted features
  • McKinley was the first President since Grant to be elected to a second, consecutive term
  • McKinley was the 5th President to die in Office, and the 3rd To be Assassinated

Grading: A

McKinley was the greatest American President not to be known by most people. He made the United States an empire, involved in foreign affairs, no longer isolated from the world.

  • McKinley signed the Dingley Tariff, raising tariffs
  • McKinley annexed Hawaii in 1898
  • While McKinley was President, The Spanish-American War burst out. The cause was Cuba seeking independence, with America rushing to the Cubans’ aid. When Spain declared war, America quickly seized Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines. In the Treaty of Paris in 1898, Spain ceded all this land to the United States. The U.S. gave Cuba its independence but kept Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines
  • McKinley also initiated the Open Door Policy and the Gold Standard Act
  • McKinley was assassinated in 1901 by an anarchist, Leon F. Czolgosz

McKinley was succeeded by his Vice President.

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