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Herbert Hoover

This era is considered to be one of the darkest times in the history of the United States. The Great Depression occurred in this era, leaving a record number of people out of jobs, and also ruined the fortunes of many families. Franklin Roosevelt sought to end the Great Depression, but the Depression only ended due to the start of World War II in America.

Herbert C. Hoover

30th President 1929-1933

Fast Facts:

  • Born: August 10, 1874 in West Branch, Iowa
  • Died: October 20, 1964 in New York City, New York
  • Home: West Branch, Iowa
  • Parents: Jesse Clark (1846-1880) and Hulda Randall (1849-1883) Hoover
  • Wife: Lou Henry (1875-1944)
  • Marriage: February 10, 1899
  • Children: Herbert Clark (1903-1969) and Allan Henry (1907-1993)
  • Occupations: Mining Engineer
  • Religion: Society of Friends (Quaker)
  • Political Party: Republican
  • Political Offices Before Presidency: U.S. Food Administrator, Chairman of Supreme Economic Council, Secretary of Commerce
  • Military Service: None
  • Election Results, 1928: 404 Electoral Votes to 87 for Alfred E. Smith of New York
  • Vice-President: Charles Curtis of Kansas

More Facts

  • Hoover was an orphan by age 9
  • Hoover made a fortune as a Mining Engineer, being the perfect example of “Rags to Riches”
  • Hoover was the first (and only) Secretary of Commerce to become President


Grading: D

  • Hoover was President of the United States during the Great Depression
  • Hoover at first did nothing to help Americans in need
  • Hoover forcibly dispersed the “Bonus Army”
  • Hoover finally created the Reconstruction Finance Corporation to help America, but it was too little, too late

Hoover was succeeded by the Governor of New York.

Franklin Delano Roosevelt

31st President 1933-1945

Franklin D. Roosevelt

Roosevelt in 1933 by Elias Goldensky


Fast Facts:

  • Born: January 30, 1882 in Hyde Park, New York
  • Died: April 12, 1945 in Warm Springs, Georgia
  • Home: Hyde Park, New York
  • Parents: James (1828-1900) and Anna Eleanor (1854-1941) Roosevelt
  • Wife: Anna Eleanor: (1884-1962)
  • Marriage: Marche 17, 1905
  • Children: Anna Eleanor (1906-1975), James (1907-1991), Elliot (1910-1990), Franklin Jr. (1914-1988), and John Aspinwall (1916-1981)
  • Occupations: Lawyer, Politician
  • Religion: Episcopalian
  • Political Party: Democrat
  • Political Offices Before Presidency: Member of New York State Senate, Assistant Secretary of the Navy, Governor of New York
  • Military Service: None
  • Election Results, 1932: 472 Electoral Votes to 59 for Herbert C. Hoover of California. 1936: 523 Electoral Votes to 8 for Alfred M. Landon of Kansas. 1940: 449 Electoral Votes to 82 for Wendell L. Willkie of New York. 1944: 432 Electoral Votes to 99 for Thomas E. Dewey of New York
  • Vice-President: John Nance Garner (1933-1941) of Texas, Henry A. Wallace (1941-1945) of Iowa, Harry S. Truman (1945) of Missouri
  • Amendments to the Constitution: Twentieth and Twenty-First

More Facts:

  • Roosevelt married the niece of Theodore Roosevelt, and therefore his distant cousin and had many extra-marital affairs
  • Roosevelt was the Democratic nominee for Vice-President in 1920, but lost in a landslide
  • Roosevelt was stricken by Polio in 1921. Most of America did not know this until after his death
  • Roosevelt was the only President to have three Vice-Presidents, and the only one to serve more than two terms. He served four
  • Roosevelt was the 6th President to die in office

Grading: C

Many People rate Roosevelt as one of the Greatest Presidents in American History, but they overlook his many follies, both as a husband and as a President.

  • Roosevelt established numerous agencies to help end the depression, putting millions of people into work and cutting unemployment to 2%. This is not what ended the Depression, However
  • Some agencies were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court, but Roosevelt continued to use the agencies under simply different names
  • Roosevelt also attempted to pack the Supreme Court with his supporters, causing a crisis
  • Roosevelt served as President for a record four terms, and also led the United States in World War II

Roosevelt was succeeded by his Vice-President.